عنوان مقاله [English]
Symbols are a part of a nation’s culture which their concepts should be comprehended for better understanding of that nation’s myths. Symbol is a sign, hint, or a word that may have a message according to its outward or beyond it. Animals, plants, human beings, objects, etc. are instances that are in relation to symbols.
In this study, we investigate symbolic concepts of lion in The Shah-Nameh, The Khamseh, and The Masnavi comparatively and according to the library method and descriptive-analytic method.
At first, we will have the dominated attitude on Avesta and Pahlavi texts about lion, then symbolic concepts of this quadruped in epic, lyric, and gnostic domain will be expressed. At the end of each part, we will determine the percentage of collation of the symbolic concepts in two or all three works, frequency of the animal’s name, and percentage of usage of lion symbolic concept in each work.
The outcome of this article is this point that lion is the most frequent animal according to the repetition of its name (1487times) and after horse, it is the second animal according to the symbolic concepts (19concepts). Its four symbolic concepts (Bravery, strength, hunting, and fury) in all three works (21 percent) and six concepts (burliness, agility, cruelty, malice, grandee, and loyalty) in two works (31.5percent) are conformed; and nine concepts (47.5percent) are only used in one of the three works. In addition, 47.5percent of concepts are in epic domain, 10.5percent in lyric one, and 42.5percent in gnostic domain.