حماسۀ ایرانی و کتابِ غولانِ مانوی

نویسندگان

1 استادِ ممتاز مطالعاتِ ایرانی در دانش‌گاهِ هاروارد

2 استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی – واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران.

چکیده

 
در این جستار به بررسیِ پیوند میانِ سنّتِ حماسیِ کهنِ ایرانی و کتابِ غولانِ مانی پرداخته­ ام: روایتِ حماسی­ اسطوره­­ای و داستان­هایِ پُرآوازۀ گذشته دربارۀ سرچشمۀ جهان و انسان، تا اندازه­ای در اسطورۀ مانی و مبلّغانِ مانوی گنجانده شده و با سنّت­هایِ اسطوره­ای و در پیوند با کتابِ مقدّس دربارۀ غولان و طوفان برآمیخته است. مانیْ اسطوره­ هایِ ایرانی را دگرگون کرده است تا با روایتِ خویش از پیدایشِ گیتی هم­آهنگی یابد. همۀ قطعه­ هایِ ادبیِ بازمانده از مانی که دربردارندۀ اشاره­ هایی به سنّتِ حماسیِ ایران است، برایِ آسانیِ کار در این­جا گرد آمده است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Iranian epic and the Manichean Book of Giants

نویسندگان [English]

  • Prods Oktor Skjaervo 1
  • Hamid Reza Ardestani Rostami 2
1 Professor of ancient Iranian languages and culture at Harvard
چکیده [English]

This research deals with the study of the relationship between the ancient Persian epic tradition and Mani’s Book of Giants.  The epic mythological narrative and the well known stories of the past regarding the origin of the world and man’s origin to a certain extent is incorporated in Mani’s myth and those myths propagated by Manichean missionaries were also intertwined with mythological traditions  in connection with biblical accounts regarding Giants and flood.  Mani had transformed Iranian mythologies in such a way to create harmony between the old mythological traditions and his own narrative version of origin of the world.  All literary pieces come down to us from Mani encompass references to Persian epic tradition and for easy access they are presented in this paper.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Book of Giants
  • epic traditions
  • Shahnameh
  • myth
  • Mani
  • Manicheism
- C. R. C. Allberry, A Manichean Psalm-Book ll. Stuttgart 1938. (Manichean Manuscripts in the Chester Beatty Collection 2).##

- F. C. Andreas, Mitteliranische Manichaica aus Chinesisch-Turkistan, ed. W. B. Henning, l, SPAW (1932:10) 173—222; ll, SPAW (1933:7) 292—363; III, SPAW (1934:27) 846—912 (Mir. Man, i—iii).##

B. T. Anklesaria, Zand-Ākāsīh. Iranian or ##Greater Bundahišn. Bombay 1956.- 

- J. P. Asmussen, Der Manichäismus als Vermittler literarischen Gutes. Temenos 2 (1966) 14—21.##

- al-Bīrūnī, see Sachau.##

- A. Böhlig, Zur religionsgeschichtlichen Einordnung des Manichaismus. In: Manichaean studies I. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Manichaeism. ed. P. Bryder. Lund 1988, 29—44. (Lund Studies in African and Asian Religions).##

- A. Böhlig, Jakob als Engel in Gnostizismus und Manichäismus. Rev. ed. in his Gnosis und Synkretismus. Vol. 1. Tübingen 1989, 164—79.##

- M. Boyce, A Reader in Manichaean Middle Persian and Parihian. Tehran and Liège 1975. (Acta Iranica 9).##

- M. Boyce, Mithra Khašathrapatī and His Brother Ahura, Bulletin of Asia Institute IV (1990) 3-9.##

- J. A. B. van Buitenen, The Mahabharata. Vol.1. The Book of the Beginning. Chicago 1973.##

Bundahišn, see Anklesaria.-##

- J. H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. l—2. New York, etc. 1983. 1985.##

- A. Christensen, Le premier homme et le premier roi dans l’histoire légendaire des Iraniens, Vols. 1—2. Uppsala 1918. (Archives D’Études Orientales 14.1—2).##

-  A. Christensen, Les Kayanides. Copenhagen 1932. (Det Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, hist.-fiIol. Medd. 19,2).##

- O. Davidson, Poet and Hero in the Persian Book of Kings, Ithaca and London 1994.

- G. Dumezil, Mythe et épopée. Vol. 1. L’idéologie des trois fanctions dans les épopées des peoples indo-européens. 5th ed. Paris 1986; Vol. 2. Types épiques indo-européens: un héros, un sorcier, un roi. 4th ed. Paris 1986.##

- Ph. Gignoux and A. Tafazzoli, Anthologie de Zādspram. Paris 1993. (Studia Iranica, cahier 13).##

W. B. Henning, Ein manichäisches Henochbuch. SPAW(1934) 27—35.-##

- W. B. Henning, The Book of Giants. BSOAS XI (1943) 52—74. .##

W. B. Henning, The Murder of the Magi. JRAS (1944) 133—44.-##

- W. 13. Henning, Two Manichean Magical Texts, with an Excursus ... BSOAS XII (1947) 39—66.##

- W. B. Henning, A Fragment of the Manichacan Cosmogony. , BSOAS XII (1948) 306—18.##

- H. Humbach and P.O. Skjaervø, The Sassanian Inscripilon of Paikuli, parts 3.1—2, Wiesbaden 1983.##

- M. Hutter, Manis kosmogonische Šābuhragān-Texte, Wiesbaden 1992.##

- A. V. W. Jackson, Avesta Grammar and Reader. Phonology, Inflection, Word-Formation. With an Introduction on the Avesta, Stuttgart 1892.##

 - A. V. W. Jackson, Researches in Manichœism with Special Reference to the Turfan Fragments. New York 1932. (Columbia University Indo-Iranian series 13).##

Kephalaia, see Polotsky.-##

H.-J. Klimkeit, Hymnen und Gebete der Religion des Lichts. Opladen 1989.-##

H.-J. Klimkeit, Gnosis on the Silk Road. San Francisco 1993.-##

- D. N. MacKenzie, Mani’s Šābuhragān. pt. I (text and translation), BSOAS XL.1I (1979) 500—34, pt. 2 (gIossary and plates), BSOAS XLIII (1980) 288—310.##

Mir. Man. i—iii, see Andreas.-##

- M. Molé, Le partage du monde dans la tradition iranienne. JA 240 (1952) 455—63; with a Note complémentaire. JA 241 (1953) 271—73.##

M. Molé, La guerre des géants d’après le Sùtkar nask. IIJ III:4(1959)282—305.-##

M. Molé, La légende de Zoroastre selon les textes pehievis. Paris 1967.-##

G. Nagy, Greek Mythology and Poetics. Ithaca and London 1990.-##

H. J. Polotsky et al., trsls., Kephalaia. Stuttgart 1940.-##

- J. C. Reeves, Jewish Lore in Manichaean Cosmogony. Studies in the Book of Giants Traditions. Cincinnati 1992.##

- C. E. Sachau, The Chronology of Ancient Nations. London 1879. Reper. Frankfurt 1969.##

- C. Schmidt and V. MacDermot, The Books of Jeu and the Untitled Text in the Bruce Codex. Leiden 1978. (Nag Hammadi Studies 13).##

- P. O. Skjaervø Aždahā. In Old and Middle Iranian. in: Encyclopoedia Iranica. ed. E. Yarshater. Vol. 3:1 (1987) 191—99.-##

- P. O. Skjaervø, Iranian Elements in Manicheism. A Comparative Contrastive Approach. Irano- Manichaica I. In: Au carrefour des grandes religions.Hommages à Philippe Gignou.x. Ed. R. Gyselen. Bures-sur Yvettes 1995, 263—284. (Res Orientales 7).##

- P. O. Skjaervø, Counter-Manichean Elements in Kerdir’s Inscriptions. Irano-Manichaica II, forth coming in the act of the Third International Congress on Manichean Studies, Arcavacata di Rende-Amantea, 31 August—5 September 1993.##

- P. O. Skjaervø, Zarathustra in the Avesta and in Manicheism. Irano-Manichaica IV, forthcoming in the acts of the conference on La Persia e I’Asia Centrale da Alessandro ai X secolo, 9—12. novembre 1994, Rome.##

- E. B. Smagina, Die Reihe der manichäischen Apostel in den koptischen Texten. in: Studia Mankhaica. II. Internationaler Kongress zum Manichäismus. ed. G. Wiessner and H-J. Klimkeit. Wiesbaden 1992, 356—66.##

- W. Sundermann, Mittelpersische und parihische kosmogoniache und Parabeltexte der Manichaer. Berlin 1973. (Berliner Turfantexte 4).##

- W. Sundermann, Namen von Göttern, Dämonen und Menschen in iranischen Versionen des manichäischen Mythos. Altorientalische Forschungen VI (1979) 95—133.##

- W. Sundermann, Mitteliranische manichäische Texte kirchengeschichlichen Inhalts. Berlin 1981. (Berliner Turfantexte 11).##

- W. Sundermann, Ein weiteres Fragment aus Manis Gigantenbuch. In: Orienralia J. Duchesne Guillernin Emerito Oblata. Leiden 1984, 491—505. (Acta Iranica 23).##

- al-Tabari, the history of al-tabari. ed. E. Yar-Shater, Albany, New York, Vol. 1:General Intro-duction and from the creation to the flood. Tr. F. Rosenthal 1989, Vol. 3: The Children of Israel. Tr. W. M. Brinner, 1991: Vol. 4: The Ancient kingdoms. Tr. M. Perlmann 1987.##

- G. Widengren, Iranisch-semitische Kulturbegenung. Cologne and Opladen 1960.##

- G. Widengren, Mani and Manichaeism, tr. C. Kessler, New York, etc 1965.##

- E.Yarshater, Iranian National History. In: Cambridge History of Iran. Vol. 3: 1. Ed. E. Yarshater. Cambridge 1983, 359-477.##

- R. C. Zeahner, Zurvan. A Zoroastrian Dilemma. Oxford 1955, reper. New York 1972.##